Some of the mechanisms that are responsible for increased nitrogen efficiency by microorganisms in plants include the production of plant hormones such as auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene, P-solubilisation, vitamin production and the fixation of nitrogen (Dobbelarere, 2003). As a direct influence observed plant growth promoting effects include increased nitrogen utilisation and improved fertiliser uptake. Economic and environmental benefits can include income from higher yields, reduced fertiliser costs and reduced emissions for the greenhouse gas, NO3-N to ground water (Kennedy, 2006).
Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plants. Endophytic bacteria such as Herbaspirillum spp and Bacillus spp, which are both present in the C-active Microbial Technology formulation, are well known for their plant growth promoting capacity. Endophytes can colonise sugarcane, rice, maize, sorghum and other cereals (James et al., 2000). Microbes similar to those in C-active Microbial Technology has been observed to increase nitrogen uptake and increase yields in a variety of crops.
Ivan R. Kennedy, A. T. M. A.choudhury and Mihaly L. Kecskes. Non-symbiotic bacterial diazotrophs in crop-farming systems: can their potential for plant growth promotion be better exploited? Soil Biology and Biochemistry Volume 36, Issue 8, August 2004, Pages 1229-1244